Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important legume crops in Egypt. However, production of faba bean is affected by several diseases including fungal diseases. Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. was shown to be the most common wilt disease of faba bean in Assiut Governorate.
Evaluation of 16 faba bean genotypes for the resistance to Fusarium wilt was carried out under greenhouse conditions. Three molecular marker systems (inter-simple sequence repeat [ISSR], sequence related amplified polymorphism [SRAP], and simple sequence repeat [SSR]) and a biochemical marker (protein profiles) were used to study the genetic diversity and detect molecular and biochemical markers associated with Fusarium wilt resistance in the tested genotypes.
The results showed that certain genotypes of faba bean were resistant to Fusarium wilt, while most of the genotypes were highly susceptible. The percentage of disease severity ranged from 32.83% in Assiut-215 to 64.17% in Misr-3. The genotypes Assiut-215, Roomy-3, Marut-2, and Giza-2 were the most resistant, and the genotypes Misr-3, Misr-1, Assiut-143, Giza-40, and Roomy-80 performed as highly susceptible.
The genotypes Assiut-215 and Roomy-3 were considered as promising sources of the resistance to Fusarium wilt. SRAP markers showed higher polymorphism (82.53%) compared with SSR (76.85%), ISSR markers (62.24%), and protein profile (31.82%). Specific molecular and biochemical markers associated with Fusarium wilt resistance were identified. The dendrogram based on combined data of molecular and biochemical markers grouped the 16 faba bean genotypes into three clusters.
Cluster I included resistant genotypes, cluster II comprised all moderate genotypes and cluster III contained highly susceptible genotypes.
Diversity Analysis of Sweet Potato Genetic Resources Using Morphological and Qualitative Traits and Molecular Markers.
The European Union (EU) market for sweet potatoes has increased by 100% over the last five years, and sweet potato cultivation in southern European countries is a new opportunity for the EU to exploit and introduce new genotypes. In view of this demand, the origins of the principal Italian sweet potato clones, compared with a core collection of genotypes from Central and Southern America, were investigated for the first time. This was accomplished by combining a genetic analysis, exploiting 14 hypervariable microsatellite markers, with morphological and chemical measurements based on 16 parameters.
From the molecular analyses, Italian accessions were determined to be genetically very similar to the South American germplasm, but they were sub-clustered into two groups. This finding was subsequently confirmed by the morphological and chemical measurements.
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Moreover, the analysis of the genetic structure of the population suggested that one of the two groups of Italian genotypes may have descended from one of the South American accessions, as predicted on the basis of the shared morphological characteristics and molecular fingerprints.
Overall, the combination of two different characterization methods, genetic markers and agronomic traits, was effective in differentiating or clustering the sweet potato genotypes, in agreement with their geographical origin or phenotypic descriptors. This information could be exploited by both breeders and farmers to detect and protect commercial varieties, and hence for traceability purposes.