A comprehensive analysis of drug resistance molecular markers and Plasmodium falciparum genetic diversity in two malaria endemic sites in Mali.

Drug resistance is one of the greatest challenges of malaria control programme in Mali. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide new and effective ways of tracking drug-resistant malaria parasites in Africa.

The diversity and the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum drug-resistance molecular markers were assessed in Dangassa and Nioro-du-Sahel in Mali, two sites with distinct malaria transmission patterns. Dangassa has an intense seasonal malaria transmission, whereas Nioro-du-Sahel has an unstable and short seasonal malaria transmission.

METHODS

Up to 270 dried blood spot samples (214 in Dangassa and 56 in Nioro-du-Sahel) were collected from P. falciparum positive patients in 2016. Samples were analysed on the Agena MassARRAY® iPLEX platform. Specific codons were targeted in Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pfdhfr, and Pfdhps, Pfarps10, Pfferredoxin, Pfexonuclease and Pfmdr2 genes. The Sanger’s 101-SNPs-barcode method was used to assess the genetic diversity of P. falciparum and to determine the parasite species.The Pfcrt_76T chloroquine-resistance genotype was found at a rate of 64.4% in Dangassa and 45.2% in Nioro-du-Sahel (p = 0.025).

The Pfdhfr_51I-59R-108N pyrimethamine-resistance genotype was 14.1% and 19.6%, respectively in Dangassa and Nioro-du-Sahel. Mutations in the Pfdhps_S436-A437-K540-A581-613A sulfadoxine-resistance gene was significantly more prevalent in Dangassa as compared to Nioro-du-Sahel (p = 0.035). Up to 17.8% of the isolates from Dangassa vs 7% from Nioro-du-Sahel harboured at least two codon substitutions in this haplotype. The amodiaquine-resistance Pfmdr1_N86Y mutation was identified in only three samples (two in Dangassa and one in Nioro-du-Sahel).

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNCAP0345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), Alkaline Phosphatase conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNCAP0345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), Alkaline Phosphatase conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC810345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF680R conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC810345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF680R conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC880345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF488A conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC880345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF488A conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNCB0345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), Biotin conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNCB0345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), Biotin conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC550345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF555 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC550345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF555 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC430345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF543 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC430345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF543 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC470345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF647 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC470345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF647 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC940345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF594 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC940345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF594 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNCP0345-250 250uL
EUR 383
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), PerCP conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC040345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF405S conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC040345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF405S conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC050345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF405M conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC050345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF405M conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNCR0345-250 250uL
EUR 383
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), RPE conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNUB0345-100 100uL
EUR 209
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), Concentration: 0.2mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNUB0345-500 500uL
EUR 458
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), Concentration: 0.2mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC680345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF568 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC680345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF568 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC700345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF770 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC700345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF770 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC800345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF680 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC800345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF680 conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC400345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF640R conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC400345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF640R conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC610345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF660R conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNC610345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), CF660R conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNCH0345-100 100uL
EUR 199
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), Horseradish Peroxidase conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNCH0345-500 500uL
EUR 544
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), Horseradish Peroxidase conjugate, Concentration: 0.1mg/mL

CD4(EDU-2) Antibody

BNUM0345-50 50uL
EUR 395
Description: Primary antibody against CD4(EDU-2), 1mg/mL

Giemsa stain

GB0477 10g
EUR 60.44

Giemsa stain

20-abx082069
  • EUR 175.00
  • EUR 217.00
  • 1 g
  • 5 g

Giemsa stain

20-abx082518
  • EUR 175.00
  • EUR 217.00
  • 1 g
  • 5 g

Jenner's Stain

GT5545-100G 100 g
EUR 160

Jenner's Stain

GT5545-25G 25 g
EUR 81

Giemsa Stain

GT6821-100ML 100 ml
EUR 46

Giemsa Stain

GT6821-250ML 250 ml
EUR 59

Wright's stain

GT7819-100G 100 g
EUR 110

Wright's stain

GT7819-10G 10 g
EUR 46

Wright's stain

GT7819-250G 250 g
EUR 190

Wright's stain

GT7819-25G 25 g
EUR 58

DiI Stain

B2742-250 250 mg
EUR 753

DiI Stain

B2742-50 50 mg
EUR 227

CytoSelect EdU Competitive ELISA Kit

CBA-5101 96 assays
EUR 543

Protein Stain-EZ C, Reversible Copper Stain Kit

BSP017 1kit, 10prep
EUR 74.36

Protein Stain-EZ B, Reversible Zinc Stain Kit

BSP019 1kit, 10prep
EUR 74.36

Protein Stain-EZG Rapid Coomassie Blue Stain Solution

BSP041 1KIT, 10prep
EUR 76.1

Silver Stain kit

AR0171 1 kit (for 30 assays to stain the gel of 5 X8.5)
EUR 152

4CN Stain Kit

PW024 5Preps, 5prep
EUR 70.88

TMB Stain Kit

PW025 5Preps, 5prep
EUR 70.88

ClearSight DNA Stain

BH40501 1ml
EUR 103
Description: For DNA staining and vizualization.

ClearSight RNA Stain

BH40601 400µl
EUR 77
Description: For DNA staining and vizualization.

Copper Stain Kit

CSK-1 1 kit(s)
EUR 189

Copper Stain Kit

CSK-2 1 kit(s)
EUR 120

Jenner's Stain, certified

GT1148-25G 25 g
EUR 107

Giemsa stain, powder

GT7801-100G 100 g
EUR 134

Giemsa stain, powder

GT7801-10G 10 g
EUR 46

Giemsa stain, powder

GT7801-25G 25 g
EUR 62

Giemsa stain, powder

GT7801-50G 50 g
EUR 86

Giemsa stain, powder

GT7801-5G 5 g
EUR 42

Pneumocystis Stain Kit

PCS-1 1 kit(s)
EUR 156

Pneumocystis Stain Kit

PCS-2 100 Slides
EUR 104

Trichrome Stain (Blue)

TGB125 125 ml
EUR 74

Trichrome Stain (Blue)

TGB500 500 ml
EUR 116

Trichrome Stain (Blue)

TGB999 1000 ml
EUR 143

Fite's Stain Kit

FLS-1 125 ml ea.
EUR 149

Fite's Stain Kit

FLS-500 500 ml ea.
EUR 295

Iron Stain Kit

IRN-1 1 kit(s)
EUR 149

Iron Stain Kit

IRN-2 100 Slides
EUR 101

GMS Stain Kit

KAA-1 125 ml ea.
EUR 216

GMS Stain Kit

KAA-1000 1000 ml ea.
EUR 884

GMS Stain Kit

KAA-500 500 ml ea.
EUR 523

Reticulum Stain Kit

GRT-1 1 kit(s)
EUR 255

Reticulum Stain Kit

GRT-2 1 kit(s)
EUR 152

Gram Stain Kit

GSK-1 125 ml ea.
EUR 125

Gram Stain Kit

GSK-2 30 ml ea.
EUR 92

Gram Stain Kit

GSK-500 500 ml ea.
EUR 303

Fite's Stain Kit

K1425-125
EUR 370

Geimsa Stain Kit

K1426-30
EUR 289

Geimsa Stain Kit

K1426-500
EUR 468

GMS Stain Kit

K1427-125
EUR 446

Gram Stain Kit

k1428-125
EUR 392

Gram Stain Kit

k1428-30
EUR 262

Orcein Stain Kit

K1432-125
EUR 501

Orcein Stain Kit

K1432-30
EUR 359

Pneumocystis Stain Kit

K1434-125
EUR 425

Pneumocystis Stain Kit

K1434-30
EUR 316

Steiner Stain Kit

K1435-125
EUR 446

Papanicolaou Stain Kit

K1440-30
EUR 207

Papanicolaou Stain Kit

K1440-500
EUR 278

EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine), 100 mg

10540 100 mg
EUR 112

The lumefantrine-reduced susceptibility Pfmdr1_Y184F mutation was found in 39.9% and 48.2% of samples in Dangassa and Nioro-du-Sahel, respectively. One piperaquine-resistance Exo_E415G mutation was found in Dangassa, while no artemisinin resistance genetic-background were identified. A high P. falciparum diversity was observed, but no clear genetic aggregation was found at either study sites.

Higher multiplicity of infection was observed in Dangassa with both COIL (p = 0.04) and Real McCOIL (p = 0.02) methods relative to Nioro-du-Sahel.This study reveals high prevalence of chloroquine and pyrimethamine-resistance markers as well as high codon substitution rate in the sulfadoxine-resistance gene. High genetic diversity of P. falciparum was observed. These observations suggest that the use of artemisinins is relevant in both Dangassa and Nioro-du-Sahel.